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Have you ever wondered why the doctor tells you to finish the entire course of antibiotics when you feel better after two days? 搞不懂为什么你的病毒性疾病没有抗生素? 彩票平台在这里回答一些关于抗生素的重要问题.

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June 29, 2020

说到抗生素, 关于什么时候开处方可能会有很多问题, 这些药应该服用多长时间以及中间的一切. 彩票平台来看看一些常见的问题(以及答案)!).  

抗生素是什么?它们是如何起作用的?

彩票平台从最基本的开始,首先谈谈抗生素到底是什么. In short, antibiotics are medications that fight infections caused by bacteria (we’ll get into that a bit more below). They work by either killing the germ by attacking the wall of coating surrounding the bacteria or hindering its ability to multiply and grow by blocking protein production in the bacteria.

When a health care provider deems that an antibiotic is necessary to treat your bacterial infection, 他们可以从中选择几种. After all, 抗生素可能是这里提到的药物的一个总称, 但是根据每种物质的化学结构有不同的分类. 你最熟悉的可能是青霉素类, 其中当然包括青霉素和阿莫西林. 原谅漫长, 令人困惑的名字, 但其他类包括大环内酯类, cephalosporins, 氟喹诺酮类原料药, beta-lactams, tetracyclines, 功效, 尿抗感染药和林可沙胺.1 唷,你还在吗? If so, just know that each of those chemical make-ups work in slightly different ways to ultimately kill the bacteria or keep it from spreading.

女人拿着一杯水和抗生素

Viral vs. Bacterial

重要的是要明白,不是每一种疾病都需要处方药, 就像抗生素. Your health care provider will recommend treatment based on the type of germ – a virus or bacteria – that caused your illness to begin with.

彩票平台从病毒感染开始. 病毒不是完整的细胞,为了生存和繁殖, 它们需要活体宿主,比如人, 动物或植物. Infections caused by viruses spread systematically throughout your entire body and are in fact very contagious. 病毒有几个很好的例子 common colds, 流行性感冒(流感) 和水痘.

话虽如此, 病毒感染的治疗方法是用液体来控制症状, 休息和可能的非处方药物. 可能有一些抗病毒药物可以专门治疗某些特定的病毒, 但不是全部.

另一方面,让彩票平台仔细看看细菌性疾病. It’s important to know that bacteria are generally single-celled organisms that can survive on their own without the need of a living host. 大多数细菌实际上是无害的, 但已知许多细菌会侵入人体并引起感染. 与病毒, 而在严重的情况下,细菌可能会扩散到全身, 它们通常孤立于身体的某个部位.

你可能熟悉的几个细菌感染的例子是 strep throat、细菌性肺炎及 尿路感染. 类似于病毒感染, 细菌感染的治疗方法包括用液体治疗症状, 休息和非处方药物.

这里的主要区别是, though, 抗生素可以用来治疗细菌感染吗.

Antibiotics Q&A

Now that we’ve uncovered some great information about what antibiotics are and when they’re prescribed, 让彩票平台来看看关于这个令人困惑的话题的几个常见问题.

问:什么是天然抗生素?

A: Great question. 当你想的时候, 抗生素已经存在了几个世纪,它们来自于自然资源. 所以有很多植物提取物是可以理解的, 食物或油会有抗生素的特性. 事实上,蜂蜜是最常见和最古老的天然抗生素之一. 它的高糖含量和低pH值使其成为一种强大的细菌抑制剂. A couple others that fall on this list are garlic extract and the essential oils of thyme and oregano.2 在开始或使用这些天然抗生素之前, though, it’s important to talk with your health care provider who can help you explore your options and weigh the benefits and risks of each.

问:抗生素会影响其他处方或药物吗?

A: We’ll start out here by saying you should always talk with your health care provider about what medications or prescriptions you’re currently taking – once again, 他们会帮你找到最安全的选择, 最健康的康复之路. 话虽如此,有些药物可能会受到抗生素治疗的影响.

For example, almost all antibiotics can impact the blood thinner Warfarin’s effects by eliminating intestinal bacteria that produces vitamin K. 你可能熟悉的另一种情况是某些抗生素对避孕药的影响. 抗生素利福平可降低血浆雌激素浓度, 在使用抗生素的过程中,哪些因素会导致口服避孕无效.3 It may be advisable to consider another form of birth control while on antibiotics for that reason, but again – chat with your health care provider if you have any concerns about your current birth control method and your antibiotic. Both of these examples are good reminders that while antibiotics can certainly kill or hinder the bacteria that made you temporarily sick, 这些抗生素也会对你身体的自然过程和生产产生一些影响, 这可能与其他药物的作用相反. Both scenarios are great examples of why you should have candid conversations with your health care provider up front.

问:有什么食物或饮料在使用抗生素期间不能食用吗?

A: While there certainly are some foods and drinks that are beneficial to your body during your bout of antibiotics (like yogurt and high-fiber foods), 有些绝对是你应该完全避免的. For instance – did you know that you shouldn’t consume grapefruit of any kind while taking certain antibiotics? 这是真的——西柚汁可以阻止身体分解一些抗生素, 哪些会对你的健康有害.4

当你服用抗生素时,最好不要喝任何酒精饮料. Mixing alcohol and certain antibiotics in your system can lead to severe reactions and side effects such as flushing, headache, 恶心,心跳加速.5 其他危险的组合还有某些抗生素和红酒, 什么会导致血压飙升. 在你生病期间,最好远离你所选择的酒精.

As always, it’s a great idea to check with your health care provider or pharmacist about what you can and can’t consume while taking those antibiotics.

问:什么是抗生素耐药性?

A: 因为细菌会继续生长,并找到新的方法来避免抗生素的影响, 这可能会引起卫生保健提供者越来越多的关注. 根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC), 任何时候使用抗生素, 它们会导致抗药性. In most cases, though, the benefits of antibiotic intervention usually outweighs the risk of resistance – but when too many antibiotics are used unnecessarily or are misused, 在未来的使用中,这种抗生素的用处可能会越来越小.6 简单地说,当你不需要抗生素或抗生素对你没有帮助时,建议不要服用. 你的医疗保健提供者可以帮助你决定何时以及是否需要它们.

Q: Why do I need to finish my 10-day antibiotic prescription when I feel better by the second or third day?

A: 这一点和前面的问题有点联系. 如果你在医生建议你服用抗生素之前就停止服用, 然后你又生病了, 残留的细菌可能已经对你服用的抗生素产生了抗药性. 几天后你可能会感觉好多了,这很好! 但这并不意味着抗生素已经完全完成了它在你体内的艰巨任务. 给它足够的时间来充分发挥作用,防止这些细菌在未来引起疾病. Simply put, antibiotics are most effective when they’re taken as your health care provider prescribes – that means don’t skip a dose or stop treatment too soon.7

抗生素是一颗难以下咽的药丸——没有双关语的意思. 因此,下一次医疗保健提供者开(或不开)抗生素时, you’ll be better equipped with the knowledge you need to get you through your illness and back on your feet to pursue a healthy, happy life. 


References:

1 CDC: 抗生素类别定义. 2020年4月6日访问.

2 Science.gov: 牛至精油. 2020年4月8日访问.

3当代诊所: 识别重要的抗生素药物相互作用. 2020年4月6日访问.

4 PubMed.gov: 葡萄柚汁的作用. 2020年4月8日访问.

梅奥诊所: 服用抗生素时饮酒有什么影响? 2020年4月6日访问.

6 CDC: 医生办公室的抗生素处方和使用. 2020年4月6日访问.

7 FDA: 对抗抗生素耐药性. 2020年4月6日访问.

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